SNAP- and CLIP-tag protein labeling systems enable the specific, covalent attachment of virtually any molecule to a protein of interest. There are two steps to using this system: cloning and expression of the protein of interest as a SNAP-tag® fusion, and labeling of the fusion with the SNAP-tag substrate of choice. The SNAP-tag is a small protein based on human O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (hAGT), a DNA repair protein. SNAP-tag substrates are dyes, fluorophores, biotin, or beads conjugated to guanine or chloropyrimidine leaving groups via a benzyl linker. In the labeling reaction, the substituted benzyl group of the substrate is covalently attached to the SNAP-tag. CLIP-tag™ is a modified version of SNAP-tag, engineered to react with benzylcytosine rather than benzylguanine derivatives. When used in conjunction with SNAP-tag, CLIP-tag enables the orthogonal and complementary labeling of two proteins simultaneously in the same cells.
SNAP-tag® is a registered trademark of New England Biolabs, Inc.
CLIP-tag™ is a trademark of New England Biolabs, Inc.
SNAP-tag® Technologies: Novel Tools to Study Protein Function
Cellular Imaging & Analysis Brochure
The Cellular Imaging and Analysis brochure provides information on the labeling technologies offered by NEB for studying the function and localization of proteins in cells.
- In Vitro Reconstitution of Thermococcus Species 9°N Okazaki Fragment Maturation (2015)
- Comparison of SNAP-tag®/CLIP-tag™ Technologies to GFP
- Labeling with SNAP-tag® Technology Troubleshooting Guide
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- Eckhardt, M. et al. 2011. A SNAP-tagged detivative of HIV-1 - A versatile tool to study virus-cell interactions PLoS One . , PubMedID: 21799764, DOI: 10.137/journal. P One .0022007
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- Kamiya M. and Johnsson K. 2010. Localizable and Highly Sensitive Calcium Indicator Based on a BODIPY Fluorophore Anal. Chem. . 82 , PubMedID: 20590099, DOI:
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- Geissbuehler M. et al. 2010. Triplet imaging of oxygen consumption during the contraction of a single smooth muscle cell Biophys. J. . 98 , PubMedID: 22259112, DOI:
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- Kampmeier, F. et al. 2010. Rapid optical imaging of EGF receptor expression with a single-chain antibody SNAP-tag fusion protein Eur. J. Med. Mol. Imaging . , PubMedID: 20449589, DOI: 10.007/S00259-010-1482-5
- Ruggiu A. A. et al. 2010. Fura-2FF-based calcium indicator for protein labeling Org. Biomol. Chem. . 8 , PubMedID: 20556282, DOI:
- Nicolle O. et al. 2010. Development of SNAP-tag-mediated live cell labeling as an alternative to GFP in Porphyromonas gingivalis FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. . 59 , PubMedID: 20482622, DOI:
- Jansen L. et al 2007. Propagation of centromeric chromatin requires exit from mitosis J. of Cell Bio. . 176, PubMedID: 17339380, DOI:
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- Böhme. et al. 2007. Tracking of human Y receptors in living cells- A fluorescence approach Peptides. 28, PubMedID: 17207557, DOI:
- Johnsson N. and Johnsson K. 2007. Chemical tools for biomolecular imaging ACS Chem. Biol. . 2 , PubMedID: 17243781, DOI:
- Stenoien D. L. et al. 2007. Cellular trafficking of phospholamban and formation of functional sarcoplasmic reticulum during myocyte differentiation Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. . 292 , PubMedID: 17287364, DOI:
- O'Hare H.M. et al. 2007. Chemical probes shed light on protein function Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. . 17 , PubMedID: 17851069, DOI:
- Stein, V. et al. 2007. A covalent chemical genotype-phenotype linkage for in vitro protein evolution ChemBioChem. . 8, PubMedID: 17948318, DOI:
- Pick H. et al. 2007. Distribution plasticity of the human estrogen receptor alpha in live cells: distinct imaging of consecutively expressed receptors J. Mol. Biol. . 14, PubMedID: 17991486, DOI:
- Mottram L. F. et al. 2007. A Concise Synthesis of the Pennsylvania green fluorophore and labeling of intracellular targets with O6-Benzylguanine Derivatives Org. Lett. . 9, PubMedID: 17705395, DOI:
- McMurray, M.A. and Thorner, J. 2008. Septin stability and recycling during dynamic structural transitions in cell division and development Current Biology . 18 , PubMedID: 18701287, DOI:
- Lin M.Z. and Wang L. 2008. Selective labeling of proteins with chemical probes in living cells Physiology . 23 , PubMedID: 18556466, DOI:
- Mao S. et al. 2008. Optical lock-in detection of FRET using synthetic and genetically encoded optical switches Biophys. J. . 94, PubMedID: 18281383, DOI:
- Tomat, E. et al. 2008. Organelle-specific zinc detection using zinpyr-labeled fusion proteins in live cells J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 130 , PubMedID: 18973293, DOI:
- Johnson K. 2008. SNAP-tag Technologies: Novel tools to study protein function NEB Expressions . 3.3 , PubMedID: , DOI:
- Adams D. G. et al. 2008. Cellular Ser/Thr-kinase assays using generic peptide substrates Curr. Chem. Gen. . 1 , PubMedID: 20161828, DOI:
- Banala J. et al. 2008. Caged substrates for protein labeling and immobilization Chembiochem . 4, PubMedID: 18033718, DOI:
- Maurel D. et al. 2008. Cell-surface protein-protein interaction analysis with time-resolved FRET and SNAP-tag technologies: application to GPCR oligomerization Nature Methods . 5, PubMedID: 18488035, DOI:
- Chidley C. et al. 2008. A designed protein for the specific and covalent heteroconjugation of biomolecules Bioconj. Chem. . 19 , PubMedID: 18754573, DOI:
- Gautier A. et al. 2008. AGT/SNAP-Tag: A versatile tag for covalent protein labeling from probes and tags to study biomolecular function Ed. Edited by Miller, L. W. . , PubMedID: , DOI:
- Erhardt, S. et al. 2008. Genome-wide analysis reveals a cell cycle-dependent mechanism controling centromere propagation J. Cell Biol.. 183 , PubMedID: 19047461, DOI:
- Howland S.W. et al. 2008. Inducing efficient cross-priming using antigen-coated yeast particles J. Immunother.. 31 , PubMedID: 18600183, DOI:
- Southwell, A.L. et al. 2008. Intrabodies binding the proline-rich domains of mutant huntingtin increase its turnover and reduce neurotoxicity J. Neurosci. . 28, PubMedID: 18768695, DOI:
- Fururta, K. et al. 2008. Diffusion and directed movement: in vitro motile properties of fission yeast kinesin-14 Plk1 J. Biol. Chem. . 283 , PubMedID: 18984586, DOI:
- Tivari R. and Parang K. 2009. Protein conjugates of SH3-domain ligands and ATP- competitive inhibitors as bivalent inhibitors of protein kinases ChemBioChem. . 10, PubMedID: 19731277, DOI:
- Brun M.A. et al. 2009. Semisynthetic fluorescent sensor proteins based on self-labeling protein tags J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 131 , PubMedID: 19348459, DOI:
- Bannwarth et. al. 2009. Indo-1 Derivatives for local calcium sensing JACS Chemical Biology . 4 , PubMedID: 19193035, DOI:
- Milenkovic L. et al. 2009. Lateral transport of smoothened from the plasma membrane to the membrane of the cilium J. Cell Biol. . 187 , PubMedID: 19193035, DOI:
- Böhme I and Beck-Sickinger A. G. 2009. Illuminating the life of GPCRs Cell Commun. Signal . 7 , PubMedID: 19602276, DOI:
- Farr G. A. et al. 2009. Membrane proteins follow multiple pathways to the basolateral cell surface in polarized epithelial cells J. Cell Biol. . 186 , PubMedID: 19620635, DOI:
- Johnsson K. 2009. Visualizing biochemical activities in living cells Nat Chem Biol . 5 , PubMedID: 19148167, DOI:
- Uano Y. and Matsuzaki K. 2009. Tag-probe labeling methods for live-cell imaging of membrane proteins Biochim. Biophys. Acta. . 1788 , PubMedID: 19646952, DOI:
- Kapmeier F. et al. 2009. Site-Specific, covalent labeling of recombinant antibody fragments via fusion to an engineered version of 6-O-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase Bioconjug Chem. . 23-Apr , PubMedID: 19388673, DOI:
- Stein V. and Hollfeder F. 2009. An efficient method to assemble linear DNA templates for in vitro screening and selection systems Nuc. Acids Res . 37, PubMedID: 19617373, DOI:
- Donovan C. et al. 2009. Characterization and subcellular localization of bacterial flotillin homologue Microbiology . 155 , PubMedID: 19383680, DOI:
- Sletten E. and Bertozzi C. 2009. Bioorthogonal Chemistry: Fishing for Selectivity in a Sea of Functionality Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. . 48 , PubMedID: 19714693, DOI:
- Carroll C.W. et al. 2009. Centromere assembly requires the direct recognition of CENP-A nucleosomes by CENP-N Nat. Cell Biol. . 11 , PubMedID: 19543270, DOI:
- Foltz D.R. et al. 2009. Centromere-specific assembly of CENP-a nucleosomes is mediated by HJURP Cell . 137 , PubMedID: 19410544, DOI:
- Ahier A. et al. 2009. A new family of receptor tyrosine kinases with a venus flytrap binding domain in insects and other invertebrates activated by aminoacids PLoS One . 4, PubMedID: 19461966, DOI:
- Cornish, V. W. 2009. Fluorescence in living systems: applications in chemical biology Wiley Encyc. of Chem. Biol. . 2 , PubMedID: , DOI:
- Chattopadhaya S. et al. 2009. Expanding the chemical Biologist's tool kit: chemical labelling strategies and its applications Curr. Med. Chem. . 16 , PubMedID: 19903152, DOI:
- Degorce F. et al. 2009. HTRF: A technology tailored for drug discovery - a review of theoretical aspects and recent applications Curr. Chem. Genomics . 3 , PubMedID: 20161833, DOI:
- Samoshkin A. et al. 2009. Human condensin function is essential for centromeric chromatin assembly and proper sister kinetochore orientation PLoS One . 4 , PubMedID: 19714251, DOI:
- Keppler A. et al. 2009. Chromophore-assisted laser inactivation of α- and γ-tubulin SNAP-tag fusion proteins inside living cells ACS Chem. Biol. . 4 , PubMedID: 19191588, DOI:
- Hill Z. B. 2009. A chemical genetic method for generating bivalent inhibitors of protein kinases J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 131, PubMedID: 19391594, DOI:
- Kindermann M. et al. 2003. Covalent and selective immobilization of fusion proteins JACS . 125, PubMedID: 12822993, DOI:
- La Clair, J.J. et al. 2004. Manipulation of carrier proteins in antibiotic biosynthesis Chem. Biol. . 11, PubMedID: 15123281, DOI:
- George N. et al. 2004. Specific labeling of cell surface proteins with chemically diverse compounds J .Am. Chem. Soc. . 126, PubMedID: 15264811, DOI:
- Huber W. et al. 2004. SPR-based interaction studies with small molecular weight ligands using hAGT fusion proteins Anal. Biochem. . 333, PubMedID: 15450803, DOI:
- Sielaff I. et al. 2006. Protein function microarrays based on self-immobilizing and self-labeling fusion proteins ChemBioChem.. 7, PubMedID: 16342318, DOI:
- Prummer M. et al. 2006. Post-translational covalent labeling reveals heterogeneous mobility of individual G protein-coupled receptors in living cells ChemBioChem . 7, PubMedID: 16607667, DOI:
- Jacquier V. et al. 2006. Visualizing receptor trafficking in living PNAS . 103, PubMedID: 16980412, DOI:
- Jongsma M.A., Litjens R. H. 2006. Self-assembling protein arrays on DNA chips by auto-labeling fusion proteins with a single DNA address Proteomics . 6, PubMedID: 16596705, DOI:
- Meyer B.H. et al. 2006. Covalent labeling of cell-surface proteins for in vivo FRET studies FEBS Letters . 580, PubMedID: 16497304, DOI:
- Meyer B.H. et al. 2006. FRET imaging reveals that functional neurokinin-1 receptors are monomeric and reside in membrane microdomains of live cells Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA . 103, PubMedID: 16461466, DOI:
- Tugulu S. et al. 2005. Protein-functionalized polymer brushes Biomacromolecules . 6, PubMedID: 15877383, DOI:
- Cravatt B.F. 2005. Live chemical reports from the cell surface Chem. Biol. . 12, PubMedID: 16183017, DOI:
- Vivero-Pol L. et al. 2005. Multicolor imaging of cell surface proteins J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 127, PubMedID: 16159249, DOI:
- Yin J. et al. 2005. Single-cell FRET imaging of transferrin receptor trafficking dynamics by Sfp-catalyzed, site-specific protein labeling Chem. Biol . 12, PubMedID: 16183024, DOI:
- Yin J. et al. 2005. Labeling proteins with small molecules by site-specific posttranslational modification J Am Chem Soc. 126 , PubMedID: 15212504, DOI:
- Kufer S.K. et al. 2005. Covalent immobilization of recombinant fusion proteins with hAGT for single molecule force spectroscopy Eur. Biophys. J . 35, PubMedID: 16160825, DOI:
- Mosiewicz, K. A. et al. 2010. Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase-Catalyzed Formation of Bioactive Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 132, PubMedID: 20373804, DOI:
- Engin S. et al. 2010. Benzylguanine Thiol self-assembled monolayers for the immobilization of SNAP-tag proteins on microcontact-printed surface structures Langmuir . ASAP, PubMedID: 20369837, DOI:
- Waichman S. et al. 2010. Functional Immobilization and Patterning of Proteins by an Enzymatic Transfer Reaction Anal. Chem. . 82 , PubMedID: 20092261, DOI:
- Zelman-Femiak, M. et al. 2010. Covalent quantum dot receptor linkage via the acyl carrier protein for single-molecule tracking, internalization, and trafficking studies BioTechniques . 49, PubMedID: 20701592, DOI:
- Liu E and Bruner S. D. 2007. Rational manipulation of carrier-domain geometry in nonribosomal peptide synthetases ChemBioChem. . 8, PubMedID: 17335097, DOI:
- Zhou Z. et al. 2007. Genetically encoded short peptide tags for orthogonal protein labeling by Sfp and AcpS phosphopantetheinyl transferases ACS Chemical Biology . 2, PubMedID: 17465518, DOI:
- Generosi J. et al. 2008. Photobleaching-free infrared near-field microscopy localizes molecules in neurons J. App. Phys. . 104, PubMedID: , DOI:
- Schulz C. and Köhn M. 2008. Simultaneous protein tagging in two colors Chemistry & Biology . 15, PubMedID: 18291310, DOI:
- Iversen L. et al. 2008. Templated protein assembly on micro-contact-printed surface patterns. Use of the SNAP-tag protein functionality Langumuir. May 17, PubMedID: 18484753, DOI:
- Kropf M. et al. 2008. Subunit-specific surface mobility of differentially labeled AMPA receptor subunits Eur. J. Cell Biol. . 87, PubMedID: 18547676, DOI:
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- Generosi J. et al. 2008. AMPA receptor imaging by infrared scanning near-field optical microscopy Physica Status Solidi C: Current Topics in Solid State Physics . 5, PubMedID: , DOI:
- Sunbul M. et al. 2008. Enzyme catalyzed site-specific protein labeling and cell imaging with quantum dots Chem. Comm. . , PubMedID: 19030541, DOI:
- Gautier A. et al. 2009. Selective cross-linking of interacting proteins using self-labeling tags J. Am. Chem. Soc. . 131, PubMedID: 19916541, DOI:
- Gralle M. et al. 2009. Neuroprotective secreted amyloid precursor protein acts by disrupting amyloid precursor protein dimers J. Biol. Chem. . 284, PubMedID: 19336403, DOI:
- Neugart F. et al. 2009. Detection of ligand-induced CNTF receptor dimers in living cells by fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy Biochim. Biophys. Acta. . 1788 , PubMedID: 19482006, DOI:
- Eggeling C. et al. 2009. Direct observation of the nanoscale dynamics of membrane lipids in a living cell Nature . 457 , PubMedID: 19098897, DOI:
- Simultaneous dual protein labeling inside live cells
- Protein localization and translocation
- Pulse-chase experiments
- Receptor internalization studies
- Selective cell surface labeling
- Protein pull-down assays
- Protein detection in SDS-PAGE
- Flow cytometry
- High throughput binding assays in microtiter plates
- Biosensor interaction experiments
- FRET-based binding assays
- Single molecule labeling
- Super-resolution microscopy
Lukinavičius, G. et al. (2015) "Fluorescent labeling of SNAP-tagged proteins in cells" Methods Mol. Biol. 1266, 107-118.
Corrêa Jr., I. R. (2015) "Considerations and protocols for the synthesis of custom protein labeling probes" Methods Mol. Biol. 1266, 55-79.
Corrêa Jr., I. R. (2014) "Live-cell reporters for fluorescence imaging" Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 20, 36-45.
Bosch, P. J. et al. (2014) "Evaluation of fluorophores to label SNAP-tag fused proteins for multicolor single-molecule tracking microscopy in live cells" Biophys. J. 107, 803-814.
Smith, B. A. et al. (2013) "Three-color single molecule imaging shows WASP detachment from Arp2/3 complex triggers actin filament branch formation" eLife 2, e01008.
Jaiswal, R. et al. (2013) "The Formin Daam1 and Fascin Directly Collaborate to Promote Filopodia Formation" Curr. Biol. 23, 1373-1379.
Breitsprecher, D. et al. (2012) "Rocket Launcher Mechanism of Collaborative Actin Assembly Defined by Single-Molecule Imaging" Science 336, 1164-1168.
Hoskins, A. A. et al. (2011) "Ordered and dynamic assembly of single spliceosomes." Science 331 (6022), 1289-1295.
Zhao, Z. W. et al. (2014) "Spatial organization of RNA polymerase II inside a mammalian cell nucleus revealed by reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 681-686.
Lukinavičius, G. et al. (2013) "A near-infrared fluorophore for live-cell super-resolution microscopy of cellular proteins" Nat. Chem. 5, 132-139.
Jones, S. A. et al. (2011) "Fast, three-dimensional super-resolution imaging of live cells." Nat. Methods 8, 499-505.
Klein, T. et al. (2011) "Live-cell dSTORM with SNAP-tag fusion proteins." Nat. Methods 8, 7-9.
Pellett, P. A. et al. (2011) "Two-color STED microscopy in living cells." Biomed. Opt. Expr. 2, 2364-2371
Hein, B. et al. (2010) "Stimulated Emission Depletion Nanoscopy of Living Cells Using SNAP-Tag Fusion Proteins." Biophys. J. 98, 158-163.
Tissue and Animal Imaging:
Yang, G. et al. (2015) "Genetic targeting of chemical indicators in vivo" Nat. Methods 12, 137-139.
Kohl, J. et al. (2014) "Ultrafast tissue staining with chemical tags" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, E3805-E3814.
Ivanova, A. et al. (2013) "Age-dependent labeling and imaging of insulin secretory granules" Diabetes 62, 3687-3696.
Gong, H. et al. (2012) "Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Mammalian Cells and Xenograft Tumors with SNAP-Tag" PLoS ONE 7(3): e34003.
Bojkowska K. et al. (2011) "Measuring in vivo protein half-life." Chem. Biol. 18, 805-815.
Cell-Surface Protein Labeling and Internalization Analysis:
Bitsikas, V. et al. (2014) "Clathrin-independent pathways do not contribute significantly to endocytic flux" eLife 3, e03970.
Jaensch, N. et al. (2014) "Stable Cell Surface Expression of GPI-Anchored Proteins, but not Intracellular Transport, Depends on their Fatty Acid Structure" Traffic 15, 1305-1329.
Cole, N. B. and Donaldson, J. G. (2012) "Releasable SNAP-tag Probes for Studying Endocytosis and Recycling" ACS Chem. Biol. 7, 464-469.
Rošić, S. et al. (2014) "Repetitive centromeric satellite RNA is essential for kinetochore formation and cell division" J. Cell Biol. 207, 335-349.
Stoops, E. H. et al. (2014) "SNAP-Tag to Monitor Trafficking of Membrane Proteins in Polarized Epithelial Cells" Methods Mol. Biol. 1174, 171-182.
Bordor, D. L. et al. (2012) "Analysis of Protein Turnover by Quantitative SNAP-Based Pulse-Chase Imaging" Curr. Protoc. Cell Biol. 55, 8.8.1-8.8.34.
Register, A. C. et al. (2014) "SH2-Catalytic Domain Linker Heterogeneity Influences Allosteric Coupling across the SFK Family" Biochemistry 53, 6910-6923.
Shi, G. et al. (2012) "SNAP-tag based proteomics approach for the study of the retrograde route" Traffic 13, 914-925.
Bieling, P. et al. (2010) "A minimal midzone protein module controls formation and length of antiparallel microtubule overlaps" Cell 142, 420-432.
Protein-Protein and Protein-Ligand Interactions:
Griss, R. et al. (2014) "Bioluminescent sensor proteins for point-of-care therapeutic drug monitoring" Nat. Chem. Biol. 10, 598-603.
Chidley, C. et al. (2011) "A yeast-based screen reveals that sulfasalazine inhibits tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis." Nat. Chem. Biol. 7, 375-383.
Gautier A. et al. (2009) "Selective Cross-Linking of Interacting Proteins using Self-Labeling Tags" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 17954-17962.
Maurel D. et al. (2008) "Cell-surface protein-protein interaction analysis with time-resolved FRET and SNAP-tag technologies: application to GPCR oligomerization." Nat. Methods 5, 561-567.
Watch as Chris Provost, of New England Biolabs, performs fluorescent imaging of live COS-7 cells expressing SNAP-tag® fusion proteins.
View an interactive tutorial explaining the mechanism of our SNAP-tag® technologies and reagents available for researchers wishing to study the function and localization of proteins in live or fixed cells.