DNA End Modification

Modification of the termini of double-stranded DNA is often necessary to prepare the molecule for cloning. DNA ligases require a 5' monophosphate for adenylation of the donor end, while the acceptor end requires a 3' hydroxyl group. Additionally, the sequences to be joined need to be compatible: either a blunt end being joined to another blunt end, or a cohesive end with a complementary overhang to another cohesive end. End modifications are performed to improve the efficiency of the cloning process, ensure the ends to be joined are compatible, and to optimize the positioning of regulatory and translated sequences.

Learn more about the various ways to modify DNA ends: Dephosphorylation, Blunting, Phosphorylation, A-tailing.

Choose Type:

DNA End Modification includes these areas of focus:
Phosphorylation (Kinase)
FAQs for DNA End Modification
Protocols for DNA End Modification
Common Applications of Exonucleases and Endonucleases
NEB provides a list of common applications for our exonucleases and endonucleases.
Properties of Exonucleases and Endonucleases
NEB supplies many nucleases; several characteristics should be considered when choosing the one best suited to your particular research needs.
Legal Information

Products and content are covered by one or more patents, trademarks and/or copyrights owned or controlled by New England Biolabs, Inc (NEB). The use of trademark symbols does not necessarily indicate that the name is trademarked in the country where it is being read; it indicates where the content was originally developed. The use of this product may require the buyer to obtain additional third-party intellectual property rights for certain applications. For more information, please email

This product is intended for research purposes only. This product is not intended to be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes in humans or animals.