Cre Recombinase is a Type I topoisomerase from bacteriophage P1 that catalyzes the site-specific recombination of DNA between loxP sites (1). The enzyme requires no energy cofactors and Cre-mediated recombination quickly reaches equilibrium between substrate and reaction products (2). The loxP recognition element is a 34 base pair (bp) sequence comprised of two 13 bp inverted repeats flanking an 8 bp spacer region which confers directionality (3). Recombination products depend on the location and relative orientation of the loxP sites. Two DNA species containing single loxP sites will be fused. DNA between directly repeated loxP sites will be excised in circular form while DNA between opposing loxP sites will be inverted with respect to external sequences.
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