Optimization of Electrospray Ionization (ESI)

Return to Analysis of Heparin/HS

Due to the acidity and lability of sulfate groups present on GAGs, ESI is the preferred technique because it can result in little or no in-source fragmentation when properly tuned (1). Optimization of the ESI tuning parameters is crucial for the accurate MS analysis of sulfated GAGs.

  • Extent and position of sulfation can lead to varying degrees of lability for every oligosaccharide. The lability of the sulfate groups increases as the size of the heparin oligosaccharide increases.
  • Successful ESI tuning parameters are more easily achieved using highly sulfated hexasaccharide standards with defined structures (NEB# P0738, P0739) as compared to smaller disaccharide standards
  1. Kim, Y. S et al. (1998) Glycobiology 8(9):869-877. PMID: 9675219