DNA Modification
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  • DNA & Protein Methylation

    The addition of methyl groups to specific nucleotide residues within a DNA sequence and/or on histones participates in epigenetic gene regulation. Methylation represents a chemical modification to the DNA on cytosine bases and histones that affects the way the molecule is shaped and, consequently binds various regulatory proteins that determines the transcriptional status of the gene. Generally a methyl group is attached on the 5th-carbon of cytosine (5mC) adjacent to a guanine (CpG dinucleotides) that is correlated with transcriptional gene repression in vertebrates. Recently, another type of enzymatic epigenetic modification of DNA has been discovered, the presence of a hydroxymethyl group (-CH2-OH) on specific cytosine bases of DNA, that results from enzymatic conversion of the 5mC by a family of oxidoreductases known as the TET family.

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