FAQ: What is the importance of the α-Gal and NGNA epitopes?

Human cells do not produce the glycan epitope Galα1-3Gal (also called Galili antigen), neither they have the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NGNA). Glycoproteins for human use (such as therapeutic monoclonal antibodies) should be produced in mammalian systems that have been engineered not to produce these glycan modifications, since they elicit a strong immune response.