New England Biolabs is working diligently to ensure we keep our employees and their families safe, while maintaining our business continuity. Despite a "Stay At Home" advisory being put in place in Massachusetts, USA, we are deemed an essential business, and our manufacturing and distribution teams continue to be fully operational. We are continuing to work with our suppliers and distribution partners to ensure uninterrupted access to our products and technical support.
All known eukaryotic and prokaryotic cytoplasm contain reductases which participate in reducing disulfide bonds. Thus, proteins are oxidized to form disulfide bonds only in certain extra-cytoplasmic compartments such as the periplasmic space in gram negative prokaryotes or endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes. Exceptions to this may occur in certain thermophilic archaea such as Crenarchaea and few thermophilic bacteria (e.g. Aquifex and Thermotoga). There are websites such as Phobius or SignalP that can be used to predict whether a protein is in the oxidizing periplasm or endoplasmic reticulum. One can get an idea of the importance of cysteines in a protein of interest by analyzing how conserved the cysteine residues are in close homologs.
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