Eukaryotic cells synthesize many different kinds of glycoconjugates including glycoproteins, glycolipids and proteoglycans. Different cell compartments are equipped with specific synthetic enzymes that are used to build and modify the glycans. Once synthesized, the glycoconjugates reside in different cell locations or are secreted out of the cell.
In the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) N-Glycans are transferred to specific asparagine residues of the nascent polypeptide, a process intimately associated with protein folding (1). As the protein migrates through the ER and Golgi apparatus, specific enzymes trim back the glycan chain, while other enzymes add new monosaccharides to the glycan structure (2). Once in the Golgi the glycoproteins are sorted for distribution to their final destination: to specific cell compartments (such as the vacuole), to the cell surface, or to the extracellular space for secretion (3), as seen in the figure below.
- Caramelo JJ, et al. (2007) Semin. Cell. Dev. Biol. 18(6):732-42. PMID: 17997334
- Roth J. (2002) Chem Rev. 102(2):285-303. PMID: 11841244
- Yamashita K, et al. (1999) Biochim Biophys Acta. 1473(1):147-60. PMID: 10580135
FAQs for Biosynthesis of Glycans in Eukaryotes
- How many different glycans could a single protein have?
- What is the difference between glycosylation and glycation?
- What is the difference between N-glycans, O-glycans, O-GlcNAc and proteoglycans (also called glycosaminoglycans, or GAGs)?
- Are all membrane and extracellular proteins glycosylated?
- Are bacterial proteins glycosylated?
- Can I analyze protein glycosylation with only benchtop instrumentation and reagents?
- Which proteins are glycosylated?
- Is it possible to predict whether a protein is N- or O-glycosylated?
Protocols for Biosynthesis of Glycans in Eukaryotes
- O-Glycosidase (P0733)
- O-Glycosidase Application Note 1 (P0733)
- Endo D Removal Magnetic Chitin Bead Protocol (P0742)
- Endo F2 Reaction Protocol (P0772)
- Endo H/Endo Hf Protocol
- Endo S Removal Magnetic Chitin Bead Protocol (P0741)
- Endo-α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase Application Note 1
- Glycan SPE C18 and Graphitized Carbon Protocols (P0710)
- Glycoproteomics: Buffer Exchange Protocols (P0710)
- Glycoproteomics: Buffer Exchange Protocols (P0711)
- Intact Protein LS-ESI-TOF Protocol (P0710)
- PNGase F Protocol
- Rapid PNGase F (non-reducing format) (P0711) Reaction Protocol
- Rapid PNGase F (non-reducing format) (P0711) SDS-PAGE Protocol
- Rapid PNGase F by SDS-PAGE Protocol (P0710)
- Rapid PNGase F Protocols (P0710)
- Reaction Conditions for Endo D (P0742)
- Reaction Conditions for Endo S (P0741)
- Reaction Conditions for PNGase A (P0707)
- Reaction Conditions for Remove-iT® PNGase F (P0706)
- Reaction Protocols for Protein Deglycosylation Mix II (P6044)
- Removal of Endo F2 by Magnetic Beads (P0772)
- Removal of terminal N-acetylglucosamine from the biantennary N-linked sugars of IgG
- Remove-iT® PNGase F Magnetic Chitin Bead Protocol (P0706)
- Typical Reaction Conditions (P0732)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for α1-2, 3, 4, 6 Fucosidase (P0748)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for α1-3, 4 Fucosidase (P0769)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for α1-3, 4, 6 Galactosidase (P0747)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for α2-3 Neuraminidase S (P0743)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for α2-3,6,8 Neuraminidase (P0720)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for α2-3,6,8,9 Neuraminidase A (P0722)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase S (P0744)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for β1-4 Galactosidase S (P0745)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for β1-4 Galactosidase (P0730)
- Typical Reaction Conditions for Endo F3 Protocol (P0771)
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