The addition of methyl groups to specific nucleotide residues within a DNA sequence and/or on histones participates in epigenetic gene regulation. Methylation represents a chemical modification to the DNA on cytosine bases and histones that affects the way the molecule is shaped and, consequently binds various regulatory proteins that determines the transcriptional status of the gene. Generally a methyl group is attached on the 5th-carbon of cytosine (5mC) adjacent to a guanine (CpG dinucleotides) that is correlated with transcriptional gene repression in vertebrates. Recently, another type of enzymatic epigenetic modification of DNA has been discovered, the presence of a hydroxymethyl group (-CH2-OH) on specific cytosine bases of DNA, that results from enzymatic conversion of the 5mC by a family of oxidoreductases known as the TET family.
FAQs for DNA & Protein Methylation
Protocols for DNA & Protein Methylation
- Capture and Elute Step for Control DNA (E2600)
- Capture Methylated CpG DNA (E2600)
- Cycling Protocol Using EpiMark™ Bisulfite Conversion Kit (E3318)
- Dialysis Assembly Protocol (E5350)
- Dilution Assembly Protocol (E5350)
- DNA Concentration Formulas for EpiMark™ Nucleosome Assembly Kit (E5350)
- DNA Fragmentation (E2600)
- Double Digest Protocol with Standard Restriction Enzymes
- Downstream Analysis (E2600)
- Elute Captured Methylated CpG DNA (E2600)
- End-point PCR Using EpiMark® Bisulfite Conversion Kit (E3318)
- EpiMark™ Nucleosome Assembly Kit (E5350)
- Gel Shift Assay for EpiMark™ Nucleosome Assembly Kit (E5350)
- Introduction (E5350)
- Optimizing Restriction Endonuclease Reactions
- Prebind MBD2-Fc to Protein A Magnetic Beads (E2600)
- Protocol for use with NEBNext ChIP-Seq Library Prep Reagent Set for Illumina (E6200)
- Reagent Preparation Using EpiMark® Bisulfite Conversion Kit (E3318)
- Recommended Protocol for 3H label of DNA
- Recommended Protocol for Methylation of Genomic DNA
- Wash Off Unbound DNA (E2600)
The Epigenetics brochure provides information on these unique solutions to study DNA and histone modifications. NEB offers a suite of validated products for epigenetics research.
- Epigenetics - Expanding on Genomic Foundations
- EpiMark® Methylated DNA Enrichment Kit Troubleshooting Guide
Other Tools & Resources
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This product is intended for research purposes only. This product is not intended to be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes in humans or animals.
If all cells are created from the same genetic material, why are there so many different cell types? Listen to Sriharsa Pradhan, Senior Scientist, RNA Biology at NEB, as he describes how DNA is methylated and how this affects the path of reading the DNA code the same way an obstruction would derail a train off its tracks.